The research is submitted to ESC Congress 2021, which starts on Aug. 27, 2021.
“In our study, women who used smoking cessation services had higher rates of overweight or obesity, depression, and anxiety compared to men and kicked the habit less often,” said Ingrid Allagbe, study author, a Ph.D. student at the University of Burgundy, Dijon, France.
“Our findings highlight the need to provide smoking cessation interventions tailored to the needs of women.”
This study compared characteristics and abstinence rates of men and women visiting smoking cessation services between 2001 and 2018 in France. Data were obtained from the nationwide database CDT-net.
The study enrolled smokers aged 18 and older with at least one additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease: overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] 25 kg/m2 or above); high cholesterol; diabetes; high blood pressure; history of stroke, heart attack or angina.
A nicotine dependence scale was used to classify participants as having mild, moderate, or severe dependence. Smoking abstinence (at least 28 consecutive days) was self-reported and confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide less than ten parts per million (ppm).
Participants provided information on their age, education level, other conditions including diabetes and respiratory illnesses, and the number of cigarettes smoked each day. Height and weight were measured. Participants were classified as having anxiety and depression symptoms or not according to their medical history, anti-anxiety medication or antidepressants, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
A total of 37,949 smokers were included in the study, of whom 16,492 (43.5 percent) were women. The average age of women in the study was 48 years, while the average age of men was 51 years. More women (55 percent) reported a bachelor’s degree level of education or higher compared to men (45 percent).
Both men and women had a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. High cholesterol was more common in men (33 percent) compared to women (30 percent), as was high blood pressure (26 percent versus 23 percent, respectively). Diabetes was also more common in men (13 percent) compared to women (10 percent).
A more significant proportion of women (27 percent) were overweight or obese than men (20 percent). Women (37.5 percent) were more likely to have symptoms of anxiety or depression than men (26.5 percent). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was more common in women (24 percent) compared to men (21 percent), as was asthma (16 percent versus 9 percent respectively).
The average number of cigarettes smoked daily was 23 in women and 27 in men. Some 56 percent of women had a severe nicotine dependence compared to 60 percent of men. Abstinence was less common in women (52 percent) than men (55 percent).
“The findings suggest that despite smoking fewer cigarettes and being less nicotine dependent than men, women find it more difficult to quit,” said Allagbe.
“Possible contributors could be the higher prevalence of anxiety, depression, and overweight or obesity among women. It has previously been reported that women may face different barriers to smoking cessation related to fear of weight gain, sex hormones, and mood.”
“The results indicate that comprehensive smoking cessation programs are needed for women that offer a multidisciplinary approach involving a psychologist, dietitian, and physical activity specialist,” she said while concluding.
(With inputs from ANI)
Edited by Ojaswin Kathuria and Nikita Nikhil
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