Ira Aldridge
Ira Aldridge, a 19th century actor, was the first African-American to play the lead role in William Shakespeare's "Othello." (Courtesy of BBC)

When the United Kingdom celebrated its annual Black History Month in October, it remembered Ira Frederick Aldridge, a 19th century actor who was the first African-American to achieve success on the international stage.

This year, as Coventry bids to be the United Kingdom’s City of Culture, Aldridge again is thrust into the spotlight.

As America observes Black History Month, Aldridge counts as an African-American legend whose life and career proved to be astonishing.

Born in New York on July 24, 1807, to two freed blacks — the Rev. Daniel and Lurona Aldridge — Aldridge became to first black actor to star as the lead in William Shakespeare’s “Othello” in London.

In the book “The Shakespeare Mashup,” Ben Arogundade writes about the difficulties and triumphs of Aldridge, noting that 18th century London was the epicenter of Britain’s pro-slavery lobby, and the press conducted a hateful campaign of blatant racism against Aldridge.

In one of his two Othello performances at the Covent Garden theatre in 1833, most objected to actress Ellen Tree as Desdemona, being “pawed about on the stage by a black man.”

The local newspaper had been just as scathing eight years prior when it commented, “Owing to the shape of his lips it is utterly impossible for him to pronounce English.”

A series of 11 performances at the Surrey Theatre were accompanied by a press report describing Aldridge as an “unseemly N-word.”

Still, Aldridge excelled and went on to become manager at the Coventry Theatre.

“It’s an astonishing story. But the fact that at the age of only 20, Ira — young, gifted and black — was handed Coventry’s Theatre to run, is truly remarkable,” professor Tony Howard, a researcher on Aldridge at the University of Warwick in England, said in a post that explored the relationship between politics and Shakespeare in modern Britain.

“[Aldridge] presented plays that attacked slavery and at the same time he raised the standards of a run-down company in crisis,” Howard said.

By age 15, Aldridge was associating with professional black actors who encouraged him to join the prestigious African Grove Theatre, an all-black theatre troupe founded by William Henry Brown and James Hewlett in 1821.

He apprenticed under Hewlett, the first African-American Shakespearean actor, according to

Though Aldridge was gainfully employed as an actor in the 1820s, he felt that the United States was not a hospitable place for theatrical performers, as many whites resented the claim to cultural equality that they saw in black performances of Shakespeare and other white-authored texts.

Realizing this, Aldridge emigrated to Europe in 1824 as the valet for British-American actor James William Wallack. He eventually moved to Glasgow, Scotland, and began studies at the University of Glasgow, where he enhanced his voice and dramatic skills in theatre.

After making his debut in London in 1825 as Othello at the Theatre Royal Covent Garden, Aldridge slowly forged a remarkable career that spanned throughout the 1850s.

According to, he performed in London, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Bath, and Bristol in “King Lear,” “Othello,” “Macbeth” and “The Merchant of Venice” and also freely adapted classical plays, changing characters, eliminating scenes and installing new ones, even from other plays.

In 1852 he embarked on a series of continental tours that intermittently would last until the end of his life. Some of the honors he received are the Prussian Gold Medal for Arts and Sciences from King Frederick, the Golden Cross of Leopold from the czar of Russia and the Maltese Cross from Berne, Switzerland.

Aldridge, who had been married twice, died Aug. 7, 1867, at age 60 while on tour in Lodz, Poland.

He left behind several children, including a daughter, Luranah, who would go on to become a well-known actress and opera singer.

“The story of Ira Aldridge is incredibly moving and is one of which Coventry should be extremely proud,” Laura McMillan, the manager of the Coventry City of Culture Trust, said in a statement.

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Stacy M. Brown is a senior writer for The Washington Informer and the senior national correspondent for the Black Press of America. Stacy has more than 25 years of journalism experience and has authored...

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